Technological advancement has changed the way business organizations carry out business activities. Technology has also affected the way we live including how people store and retrieve information. The book publishing industry is also affected largely by technology especially trough transformation in digitalization, consolidation, and globalization CITATION. The way content is produced, marketed and the platforms used to sell have changed as compared to the previous decade. These dynamic changes have brought turbulence in the book publishing industry. Today business enterprises in the publishing industry create content in form of fiction and nonfiction books, education and professional titles in print as well as digital format such as e-books CITATION. The purpose of this paper is to assess the book publishing industry. To achieve this, the paper looks at the competitive advantage, business environment and other industry insights through industry analysis. Overview of the Book Publishing Industry The book publishing industry has undergone transformation over the last five years to adapt to changing customer preferences and rapid technological change. There has been a slow growth in per capita disposable income in the past five years reducing books demand and industry sales. On the other hand, increased college enrolment and improved education standards are anticipated to generate higher demand for books in the next five years. Demand for books is highly dependent on demographics and is by large resistant to economic cycle CITATION. The profitability of solo companies is driven by product development and marketing. The major companies in the book publishing industry include McGraw-Hill Education (the US), Thomson Reuters, Scholastic, and penguin random House (Based in United States but owned by a German firm), Reed Elseview (The UK and the Netherlands), Pearson (The UK) and Wolters Kluwer (The Netherlands). According to CITATION global revenue generated from books accounts to approximately $120 million. India has been cited to be the fastest-growing book publishing market. Revenue generated from e-books is expected to grow stronger especially in countries having high tablet penetration such as the UK, the US, South Korea and Singapore. The United States alone have approximately 2600 establishments and generate total annual revenue of $27 billion. Industry leaders in the book publishing industry have the priviledge of bidding for new authors or manuscript. On the other hand, small and midsized can thrive if they focus on a specific niche. The key products offered in the book publishing industry include textbooks, professional books, adult trade books, reference books, children’s books, e-books magazines, industry trade publications, online newspapers, digital magazines, printed directories, maps, calendars, mailing lists, among others. Textbook professional and technical books accounts for the largest portion of the industry mainstream (about 30%), adult trade books account for 25%, children books (7%) and reference books (3%) CITATION. PESTEL Analysis of the Book Publishing Industry Political Factors: The issue of taxation and regulation from the government tend to affect the book publishing industry. For instance, the office of Fair Trade in the UK protects consumers to ensure that they receive quality books from the responsible companies. Economic Factors: Consumers for books live in different parts of the world. Therefore, changes in exchange rates have a huge impact on the revenue generated. On the same note, cost of production has increased over the years because of the cost of paper. According to CITATION, the price of paper has increased up to 25% in the year 2014. Social Factors: The value of the book market has decreased globally. More people are reading on the internet using PCs, tablets, and smart phones and shifting away from reading printed books, magazines, or newspapers. It is easier also to obtain information via the internet as compared to purchasing a book or a magazine which might take time. The cost of living has also increased dramatically making people spend more money on consumables like food and spend less on books. Technological Factors: The book publishing industry constantly experience dramatic change due to rapid technological advancement. More efficient printing techniques such as Offset printing technology and digital book printing help print huge volume of quantities. On the same note, the demand for digital books in form of e-books has increased over the years because of introduction of tablets and Smartphone in the society. Environmental Factors: Concern on environmental issue has been increasing so far. Trees are one of the raw materials that are used in producing papers. Therefore, some clients will prefer to purchase e-books because of their concern about environmental sustainability. However, many publishing giants have addressed the issue by doing campaigns to support environmental conservation such as Eco printing or green printing plan which uses 10 percent of recycle paper print for materials or books. Legal Factors: In the book publishing industry, most of the legal factors are in favor of Authors and publishers. The British Statue of Ann (1710) protects books from piracy and other illegal activities resulting from infringement of patent rights CITATION. On the same note, the Copyright act of 1956 protects not only books but also technological productions such as films and broadcasts. SWOT Analysis of the Book Publishing Industry Strengths Well-Established industry enjoying a large customer base. Good and Available market locally and internationally. The products appeal all ages and social classes. Brand trusted by consumers as a good source of information. Most of the products from the book publishing industry are considered high quality. High level of literacy especially in the Developed nations with most people having the requisite education to read wide range of books. Books are essential in education sector. Most education institutions use books in their library system. Strong Financial base. Diverse industry with a number of specialists understanding their niche market. Weaknesses Mature industry with no immediate driver for change. Hence, some of the companies use cost reduction strategies rather than innovations to expand the market. The younger generation are spending less time in reading and utilize other media such as the internet, television and games. Literacy is note universal. Limited innovation capabilities. Buyers of books are not often end-users e.g. public libraries, schools, and universities hence companies are not in a position to influence the end users. Large number of small farms hence increased competition. High wastage in sales distribution channels. Slow responds to the threats and opportunities created by the internet. Opportunities Extend strong brands into online services. Growth opportunities as economies develop Making content available through mobile devices. Introduction of digital editions such as e-books Increasing range of books that are delivered via the internet. Use of internet as a tool for sales and marketing. Reduction of barriers to entry through the use of technology. Using the internet as a medium to establish direct relationship with consumers. Threats Consumers are spending more money and time on other media at the expense of books Changes in priority in government spending may imply less money allocated for education and academic books purchases. Vulnerability to piracy as technology becomes widely used. Expectation that content that are often paid in print will be available for free online. Increased VAT in print product increases the prices. Blue Ocean Strategy According to Kim & Mauborgne, business enterprises can succeed in creating opportunities in areas that are unexplored “blue oceans” CITATION. One of the weaknesses identified in the book publishing industry is that the market industry is matured with no immediate driver for change. Therefore, most of the giant companies have focused on cost reduction strategies rather than use of product innovation which may be useful as it helps in increasing the overall market size. This should not be the case; instead these companies should focus on value innovation coupled with pursuit of product differentiation and low cost strategies. Therefore, book publishing companies should come up with strategies that are value based and could help in value innovation as it could help add value to the company, buyers, and its employees. On the same note, such strategies could help in finding new demand and creation of healthy competition within the industry. Despite the fact that the book publishing industry is already developed, companies could still find the unexplored market with little competition or low competition that is not enough to meet consumer demand. Main Companies that Operate in the Book Publishing Industry Some of the major companies in the book publishing industry include: McGraw-Hill Education McGraw-Hill Education is one of the largest american book publishing companies located in the United States. According to CITATION, McGraw-Hill education is among the “big three” education publishers that produce tailored education content, software for all the levels of learning. The company produces trade publications and reference for business, medical, engineering among other professions. According to CITATION, McGraw-Hill have operations in approximately 28 countries and employ approximately 4,800 people across the world, its products and services are available in over 60 languages in more than 35 countries CITATION. McGraw-Hill education has expanded over the years due to their acquisition strategy not only in the publishing industry but also on other areas such as broadcasting (Acquired time-life broadcasting in 1972), financial services (Acquired standard & Poor’s in the year 1966). Some of the acquisition in the trade industry include California test bureau, the Ryerson Press, the Economy Company, Random House Schools and Colleges, among others. Scholastic Corporation Scholastic corporation is among the giant education companies in the America and globally. The company is popular in publishing, selling and distribution books for teachers, schools, students and parents. The company is created on three segments that is children book publishing and distribution, education and international books. The company holds publishing rights to one of the popular productions such as the hunger games and harries porter. According to CITATION, Scholastic Corporation is the largest publisher globally when it comes to distributing children books, print and education materials for pre-K to grade 12. Apart from schools the company distributes its books via reading clubs, online sales, and fairs. Thomson Reuters Thomson Reuters Company is a multinational mass media company owned by Woodbridge Company. According to CITATION, Thomson was ranked Canada’s leading brand in the year 2010. The company has its operations in more than 100 countries across the globe and employees approximately 60,000 employees across the world. The company has grown over the years through acquisitions with other companies such as Seamlogics, vhayu technologies, Hugin Group, Breaking Views among others. Apart from publishing content, the company has diversified to other industries such as data mining, foreign exchange among others. Penguin Random House Penguin Random House (PRH) is among the most popular brands in the book industry formed through a merger between two big companies the Random House and Penguin Group. According to CITATION, the company is branded “the world’s truly global trade book’ publisher. The company produces adult and children fiction and fiction books in print and digital format in the United Kingdom, Canada, US, New Zealand, Australia and India. The company also has an employee base of approximately 10000 across five continents. The company houses some of the famous titles and authors. According to CITATION, the company has 70 Nobel Prize laureates and numerous most wide read authors. The company has many divisions and imprints such as DK, Crown Publishing Group, Penguin, and Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group and RH International CITATION. Pearson Pearson Education is British-owned company dealing with education publishing as well as providing assessment service to schools, companies as well as schools. The company was founded 18 years ago and owns popular media brands such as Addison-Sesley, Peachpit, Prentice Hall, Longman, eCollege,, Scott Foresman, potropica among others. According to CITATION the corporation generates about 60% of sales in North America and operates in approximately 70 countries. Pearson has also partnered with other major higher education publishers to develop CourseSmart for selling college textbooks in etext format via internet platform. On the same note, the company has partnered with other companies such as GreyCampus and New York State Department of Education among others.
January 10, 2018
Free sample paper on CALD Clients, Family Care and Aged Care Services
January 10, 2018

Free sample paper on Ethics Assignment: Case Study 6

The field of medicine is often faced with several dilemmas as some situations result in conflict between ethics and medical practice. In this paper, we will look at scenario 6 of an old grandmother and her granddaughter. As a group, the decision-making framework we adopted to apply in the use for the assigned case is a Simple Guide to Ethical Deliberation for Professionals, written by Vanya Kovach.
The Case
A 65 year old grandmother brings her 14 year old granddaughter to your clinic to request birth control pills for the teenager. The teenager is tearful, keeps saying she is not sexually active and does not want the pill. The grandmother tells you that the girl’s mother is on drugs, is a prostitute some of the time, left this daughter for her to raise, and she is not going to raise another generation of babies. She says, “I cannot watch her all the time, she needs to be on the pill.” What will you do?
Fundamental conflict
A Simple Guide to Ethical Deliberation for Professionals, advises the adoption of the following framework;
1. Exploration
The first task entails exploration of the issue at hand and in this case, the fundamental conflict surrounds the ability of a teenage girl to make a medical decision. It is difficult to know whether the child is already sexually active but it is the responsibility of the nurse to make the right decision that would not harm the patient as a result.
2. Professional obligations
The nurse has an obligation to protect the teenage girl from harm in that issuing a medical prescription without proper diagnosis would lead to misdiagnosis. The professional oath requires also that whatever information provided by the girl in the event of an inquiry should not be disclosed to any other person.
3. Boundaries in the situation
The boundaries involve full disclosure of any information not protected by the Fifth Amendment right provided to teenagers under the constitution. Any information that may affect the teenage girl negatively should be made aware to the guardian who is the grandmother.
4. Awareness of self as well as that of others useful in the case
The grandmother should be aware that the teenage girl has rights and cannot be forcefully made to take birth control pills. As a nurse it should be my duty to know if the girl is sexually active or not. The girl should also be aware that teenage pregnancy is a menace in the society and in the event that she wanted to engage in sex, she had the option for birth control.
5. Possible solutions
The solutions available in the table involve guidance and counselling to the teenage girl on the dangers of risky sexual behaviors. Education on disadvantages of unwanted pregnancies and possibility of acquiring sexually transmitted Infections (STI). The other option for a solution is making the grandmother understand that the fact the mother of her granddaughter being an addict and a prostitutes does not guarantee that her daughter will follow suit as she is an individual of her own.
6. Evaluation of solutions
The solutions provided are essential and viable. However, putting the teenage kid under close scrutiny in addition to guidance and counseling services will help in providing a long term solution.
7. Legal rights violated
Forcing a patient to take a particular medicine against her own will violate the basic constitutional rights of the girl. The girl has her rationality intact and is fully capable of making medical decisions on her own.
8. Likely benefits and risks
The risks entail the girl ending up pregnant when not put on the birth control pill as per the demand of her grandmother. The blame will be placed on the nurse. The benefit of not putting the girl on the pill and provision of guidance and counselling will ensure she continues to become a responsible citizen and a well-educated person.
9. Checking and reflecting effect on relationships
The relationship between the girl and the grandmother will be impacted negatively either way whether the girl is on pill or not. The reason being the girl will feel her rights infringed by the grandmother.
Argument to the issue
The issue entails teenage pregnancy. The framework should involve the application of teenage rights and careful monitoring of the activities carried out by the teenage girl. The endangered issue involves the denial of teenage rights with the presumption that an adult should help them in making such decisions (“Our Culture’s Teen Pregnancy Ethical Conflict”, 2017). The case should originate from the fundamental rights of human beings. If the teenage girl consumes birth control pills without engaging in sexual activities, she will be affected in her health in a harmful way. The appropriate approach would entail putting her on counselling services.
Case positioning
Unfortunately none of the group members had such an experience but if we were in the same situation, the feeling would be that of oppression and slavery. Therefore, the teenage girl should not experience the struggle of being discriminated on the basis of her mother’s actions when she herself is different. As the teenage girls, the best friend would be the nurse to confide to and accept medical assistance when needed. The objective of our team entails identifying the real facts behind the grandmother’s desired to put the teenage girl on birth control. The second objective would entail making close monitoring of the teenage girl movements when at home and at school. The motivation behind the case for the team is identifying negative implications of forcing the teenager on birth control (“Contraception and Adolescents”, 2017). It is also an important thing to understand the religious aspect of the 14 year old girl.
B. Background
The ethical issue surrounding the case entails provision of birth control pills to a teenage based on past records of her mother. The 14 year old granddaughter is presumed to follow the same path as the mother and engaging in drug abuse alongside prostitution. The ethical dilemma arises where the nurse needs to avoid putting the teenage girl on pills while she alleges not to be sexually active. However, if the allegations provided by the grandmother are correct, then when the girls gets pregnant the nurse will be on blame. Also the 14 year old girl has personal rights which protect her. The situation of this case surrounds issues of teenage pregnancy which may lead to the girl dropping out of school at an early age, use of birth control pills among the youth, individual rights and the competence and ability to make personal decisions.
Teenage pregnancy
The arguments surrounding ethics that support individual care for teenagers focus on respecting the developing independence. The acknowledgement of changing capacity for decision making, consenting to teens learning accountability in medical care judgment, alongside enlightening access and safety to care aims to promote autonomy of teenagers (“Decision Making/Problem Solving With Teens | Ohioline”, 2017). Adolescence entail a period of strong transition of development.
During teenage years, a person will definitely develop emotionally and intellectually, engage with a peer group, get into workforce or pursue higher education, which may lead to them becoming financially or socially autonomous. When medical doctors deliver personal care for teenagers, they are providing them the chance to study how to engage with them become in charge of their medical care, while supporting and respecting the growth of an evolving self-autonomy.
Studies done previously support this prerogative: when clinicians deliberated on complex subjects with a set of surveyed teenagers, the adolescents in the research stated that the nurses heard their concerns and they felt close to them as they became more and more involved in their health care. No individual would like to stay in the dark ages where the school pregnant children were discriminated and expelled. Teenage pregnancy should be approached with a lot of care as it involves a life crisis.
The ethical reaction to other people’s crisis in life involves kindness, compassion and support. As culture involves a set of accepted norms that govern the society, it becomes a social concern when teenage pregnancies become more frequent and therefore culture has to convey the message of discouraging the act before or after getting pregnant.
Birth control pills
Pediatricians play a significant part in reproductive health care among adolescents. The long-term relations between families and patients permit them to support in promotion of strong decision-making regarding abstinence as well as sexuality to evade the undesirable outcomes related with dangerous sexual actions. As supporters for the well-being and health of teenagers, pediatricians convey their suggestions to teenage patients to practice sexual abstinence since any sexual action where the adolescent is not ready for may result to financial, physical and emotional concerns. Pediatricians have identified that the trends in use of contraception utilized by youths over the last two eras demonstrate a general rise in an increase in use of male condom and oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use (“Birth Control Pill Use – Child Trends”, 2017).
Personal decision making
The skill of decision making is a significant ability to communicate to kids of all ages, since guardians need their offspring to mature as responsible, autonomous, and contented grown-ups. Some study indicate that individuals who have capacity to assess circumstances and make choices are likely to become more prosperous in life. Skills of decision making ought to start quick with providing children with small choices to start choosing their options. Nevertheless, as offspring grow into teenagers the need to develop independence as they grow.
Adolescents need engage in making decisions more often on the choices that affect them. In the process, they get to make mistakes as they learn and grow. However, if parents or guardians like in our case study make the choices for them most of the time then they will be underprepared to take on such task when they grow into adults. Several adolescents possess enough emotional development and cognitive capability to make numerous decisions regarding health care. Investigations done on past research reveal that by age 14 to 15 years, teenagers make decisions based on health-related issues comparable to those made by grown-ups. Due to differences in development between both the affective and cognitive systems, teenagers often have challenges in circumstances with peer distraction or high emotional arousal and might want additional support in decision-making during such situations.
Individual rights
In general, the constitution of a state applies to all individuals regardless of race, age, religion, and color among several other factors. However, children don’t continuously get entitled to full rights of the constitution. Even though teenagers are regarded to possess restricted capacity for decision-making by several policy makers, occasions exist where adolescents provide knowledgeable approval without intervention from parents (“Minor’s Rights Versus Parental Rights: Review of Legal Issues”, 2017). Some of the acts include the emancipated teenager, the matured minor, and lastly an emergency condition. It is significant for all parents to comprehend the Health rights accorded to teens. A key duty during the adolescent years entails striking the equilibrium between parental and autonomy sustenance. Developmentally, adolescents undergo the maturity process: they change from tangible to more intangible rational, they query restrictions, and begin to take accountability for their wellbeing.
C. Ethical Theory
Virtue Theory
The theory forms an opinion on an individual based on their personality as opposed to an act that may differ from their normal conduct. It considers the motivation, morals and reputation of an individual when evaluating an irregular or unusual behavior deemed as unethical (MacKinnon & Fiala, 2014). The single weakness identified of the particular theory in discussion is that it avoids taking into account the reflection of a change in a person’s moral personality. For instance, a researcher who probably made errors in the previous times may fairly possess similar late night narrative as the researcher in good standing. Both scientists did intentionally plagiarize the work, but the deed was still performed. However, as an alternative a researcher might opt for an unexpected shift from ethical to unethical character that might go overlooked until a substantial volume of indication gathers up contrary to him/her.
Respect for Autonomy
The code asserts that the process of making decisions should concentrate on letting individuals to be independent so as have capacity to make choices that directly affect their existence (“Are Students (and Minors) Protected by the Constitution?”, 2017). Consequently, the general public should be in control of their lives since they entail the only persons who totally comprehend their kind of lifestyle choices. Every individual deserves respect because he/she is the only person who has had the exact life experiences and can comprehend his motivations, emotions and his physical capabilities in such an intimate way fully. This ethical approval and principle of respect for autonomy is a branch of the beneficence principle which is a moral order that regards every individual as independent beings who have control and authority over their life experiences and can get the kind of lifestyle they want.
Personal freedom and beliefs are the fundamentals upon which the modern bioethics law and concept is based (Savulescu & Schuklenk, 2016). Liberty or autonomy of an individual allows each person regardless of their background or societal status the right to make their decisions. Personal freedom is directly opposite to the medical profession paternalism or parentalism which allowed the doctor to make critical decisions on behalf of the patient as long as the decision was thought as good for the person sick. The doctors made the decision for the patient whether or not the patient agreed under the assumption that they did not understand much concerning their conditions.
Interpersonal relationships form the basis upon which respect for an individual as a person is derived (Yolanda, 2017). Only five medical practitioners have accepted the decent idea in their practice over the years. The Doctors low turn out to the idea is understandable as taking the patient autonomy ethical principle would ultimately change the physician’s role in many ways. Accepting the idea would also mean that the doctor’s become partners rather than absolute arbiters during patient care and treatment. Secondly, it would also mean that the medical practitioners become educators in enlightening their patients well concerning their medical conditions so that they can make appropriate decisions. Lastly, accepting patient autonomy would make some clinicians make foolish decisions a situation which may be very distressing to the clinicians. For most physicians dedicated to maintaining and preserving the patient wellbeing, having to allow the patients select for themselves ineffective regimens or terrible treatment methods can be both disheartening and frustrating. Allowing decisions made by the patients is part of accepting the patient autonomy principle hence there is a need to understand it by both the physician and the patients fully.
Decision-making capacity and consent
Patients under medical treatment can only exercise their autonomy if they have an apparent mental capacity to be able to do so. Every human being that has attained the adult age and is of sound mind has the right to determine what shall be done to his or her body. The principle of patient autonomy can only be used well in the clinical practice if both the physicians and the patients comprehend decision-making capacity process. Decision-making capacity is the patient’s ability to make crucial decisions concerning his or treatment care as directed by the clinician. The patient’s level of knowledge concerning specific decisions is related to the seriousness of the treatment outcome and the nature of the information presented to the patient. Unless the patient lacks sound mind or is unconscious, he or she can participate in the decision-making process. Patients must be able to understand all the options available so as to have the adequate decision-making capacity. They must also know the consequences, costs, and benefits of choosing to act on such options. Patient’s disagreement with the physician directives, however, cannot be used as grounds for determining whether the patient is incapable of making good decisions.
Patients can sometimes refuse even lifesaving healthcare programs, decisions which may lead to catastrophic consequences including loss of life. Most patients refuse extensive medical care due to religious beliefs and traditional customs as seen with the majority of Jehovah’s Witness faithful’s. In most cases, surrogate decision makers are involved in the patient’s decision-making process if the patients are unable to make crucial decisions regarding their healthcare. Surrogate decision makers can be spouses, parents of adults, older children and others including the attending clinicians.
Under some circumstances, the hospital bioethics committee or the law court can be forced to intervene and determine the appropriate decision maker for the patient (Imber, 2017). Unique situations represent those that involve children as they have not attained the age of majority which is required in making the right thing. In most cases, however, children are treated with the same rules that apply to the adults and are allowed to make their decisions regarding their health (“Minor’s Rights Versus Parental Rights: Review of Legal Issues”, 2017). The more severe the outcomes and consequences, the more capacity, consultation and understanding of the options, consequences, and values involved are required of them to make a decision.
D. Conclusion
The problem identified above can only be solved through provision of proper guidelines that protect teenagers from forceful treatment with regard with medical issues. The ethical concern of permitting teenage pregnancy or putting teenagers on birth control pills is vital as it entails definition of fundamental rights.
Are Students (and Minors) Protected by the Constitution?. (2017). Quick and Dirty Tips. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from
Birth Control Pill Use – Child Trends. (2017). Child Trends. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from
Contraception and Adolescents. (2017). Retrieved 25 April 2017, from
Decision Making/Problem Solving With Teens | Ohioline. (2017). Retrieved 25 April 2017, from
Minor’s Rights Versus Parental Rights: Review of Legal Issues. (2017). Medscape. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from
Our Culture’s Teen Pregnancy Ethical Conflict. (2017). Ethics Alarms. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from
Yolanda, E.M., (2017). Health Rights of Teens. Teenology 101. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from
MacKinnon, B., & Fiala, A. (2014). Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues. Nelson Education.
Imber, J. B. (2017). Abortion and the private practice of medicine. Transaction Publishers.
Savulescu, J., & Schuklenk, U. (2016). Doctors Have no Right to Refuse Medical Assistance in Dying, Abortion or Contraception. Bioethics.

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