The chronic complications of Diabetes mellitus result majorly from the damage of the blood vessels – damage of the small blood vessels leads to micro-vascular disease while the damage to the arteries causes macro-vascular diseases. It has been shown that the disease causes damages to almost everybody organ a complication commonly known as “end-organ damage.” As nurses, we are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that diabetic patients receive a detailed plan of care that is aimed at preventing the occurrences of the complications associated with diabetes. In addition, we ought to educate patients that have been diagnosed with diabetes on how the complications of diabetes and how they can avoid them.
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Micro-angiopathy (damage of the small blood vessels) causes the following complications: Diabetic cardiomyopathy. This is the impaired relations of the heart muscles and filling of the heart with blood leads which results in heart failure. This happens due to damage of the heart muscles from the presence of the blood glucose in large quantities. Diabetic nephropathy, this is kidney disease which involves the damage of the kidney vessels by the sugar that is filtered from the blood which can result to the chronic renal failure. Diabetic retinopathy, complications such as blindness and reduced vision can come up from the damage of the retina`s blood vessels and nerves. It can also lead to slow blood flow and weak vision from the new growth of capillaries in the retina which are crumbly and have reduced quality. Diabetes mellitus also causes damage to the nerves resulting in the development of peripheral myopathy whereby an individual ceases to perceive stimuli from the environment (Sen, Chakraborty & De, 2016).
Macrovascular diseases with atherosclerosis accelerator present cardiovascular diseases come up:
Coronary artery disease also develops predisposing a patient to a heart attack. Joint and foot problems, low flow of blood to the limbs, collective with the damage of the nerves and reduced sensation results in the easy damage of the feet and hands. Such patients end up developing diabetic foot which is normally managed by cutting the foot. Moreover, stroke mainly the ischemic type is also bound to develop. An increase in blood sugar can induce skin illnesses such as fungal and bacterial infections, diabetic dermopathy and rashes on the skin as well as rough texture skin patches.
Huether, S., & McCance, K. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Sen, S., Chakraborty, R., & De, B. (2016). Complications of diabetes mellitus. In Diabetes Mellitus in 21st Century (pp. 69-100). Springer Singapore.
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