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Human Resource


1. What factors would you take into account if you were designing an approach to performance management?

2.Interviewer:‘Some people say that being casual gives you flexibility…’

Employee Respondent:‘Crap! It doesn’t suit me at all. I’d much rather work full time.’

Reviewing the literature on flexible working, discuss the proposition that flexibility is produced by employee preferences.


The success of organization in today competitive market depends on how human resource department manage organization performance. Organization performance can be termed as the procedures to be followed when measuring and rewarding abilities of employees to meet and surpass organization goals (Adre De Waal, 2013; Jacksic, 2013). Performance management helps in motivating employees often resulting in increased overall productivity of workers and creating loyalty between employees and the company (Dracy et al., 2012). There exist a number of factors that an organization needs to consider when designing an approach to performance management.

One of the factors to consider is organization goals. Before developing a strong performance management approach, it is important to consider the organization goals and objectives. A good performance management is one that is geared to motivate employees to work towards achieving organization goals and objectives (Pradeepa et al., 2012). Developing a performance management system that is focused towards achieving organization goals will help motivate employees by measuring and rewarding performance expectations. On the same note, it will benefit the organization as employees will be encouraged to work towards the goals of the organization (Cummings et al., 2009). Performance management approach should be able to support organization plans and significant achievement factors.

The second important factor to consider when designing an approach to performance management is administration tools and processes. It is important to choose well-developed and efficient administration tools and develop programs that makes the approach positive and will gain support from the stakeholders of the organization (Calvo, 2013). A performance management system that is not user-friendly and is not supported by the stakeholders, as well as the employees of the organization, will eventually fail to work. Therefore, it is imperative that performance management approach should employ simple easy to understand tools that will enable employees to identify with the organization performance management program.

The appraisal process is also an important factor to consider when designing an effective performance management approach. In order to increase employees work performance, the appraisal program developed should include giving constructive feedback, recognizing exceptional performance and listening to employees complaints (Gupta, 2012; Bernardin et al., 2013). A good performance management program should have coaching tools and writing performance to aid the executive management in giving a constructive analysis of the employee performance at work. Consequently, it is imperative to provide feedback on what employees have learned and what still need to be taught. In order to create a plan to provide employees with opportunities to acquire necessary skills required at work (Storey et al., 2009).

A good performance approach should be able to maintain and retain top talent that is behind the organization success. It is good to develop a performance management approach that will be able to retain top talent by motivating and rewarding top performance (Achim, 2009). A good strategy is the pay-for-performance approach that works by increasing pay, bonuses or giving other rewards such as gifts award etc.

In conclusion, many factors will impact on the effectiveness of the performance management approach. However, it is important to ensure that the approach taken by the organization will be able to motivate employees to work towards attaining organization goals (Mello, 2014). The approach taken should, therefore, be able to motivate and enable employees identify with the organization.

Flexible working

Flexible working has been a heated discussion in the corporate world with varied opinions from managers, employees, and other stakeholders within the corporate world. Work flexibility is often desired by employees in an organization (Lambert et al., 2012). Flexible working refers to a method of working developed to suit employee’s needs (Gallie et al., 2012). For instance, methods developed for working that suit expectant mother, parents and other employees who have other issues to attend to besides working.

Work flexibility emanates from employees desires to achieve work-life balance (Kossekl et al., 2011). Employees will always like to work in organizations that enable them to balance work with personal responsibilities. Nevertheless, there are some key factors that must be considered to determine if it is possible to have a flexible work agreement. For example workplace culture, industry or sector of the workplace and the nature of the occupation.

Married couples prefer to have flexible working hours as compared to those employees who are not married (Vandello et al., 2013; Allen et al., 2014). This tendency is because those who are married will often want to have time with their partners and attend to their partners needs. They will, therefore, prefer flexible work. On the other hand, often unmarried prefer longer working hours to keep them busy and will not prefer reducing working hours (Allen et al., 2013). Unless if they feel they are overworked or they work for long hours as than what is required of them.

Employees living in developed countries such as USA prefer flexible working hours (Lambert et al., 2012). Such employees will not lack something to do in their free time and have so many activities to cover apart from work. People living in developed countries are often associated with many investments. They will, therefore, prefer to have flexible working hours so as to attend to his other activities.

People who are living in Less Developed Countries often prefer to work full-time because they are often idle and find pleasure in working. Most people living in Less Developed Countries are often concerned with family and work (Darcy et al., 2012). They therefore, prefer to work longer since they don’t have any other thing to do besides working.

Women at the childbearing age often prefer flexible working hours. Such women cite factors such as family and social responsibility as the reason they prefer to have flexible working hours.

Mature aged workers or those employees who are often referred to as ‘baby boom generation’ prefer flexible working hours (Kulik et al., 2014). These are individuals between the ages of 55 to 64.  Organization often seeks to maintain highly-skilled and motivated employees beyond their retirement age. Such employees prefer working for fewer working hours to ensure work life balance.

Therefore, it is evident that flexibility at work is as a result of employees preferences. Employees are often the ones who take responsibility for requesting for flexible work hours. Different classes of workers have different opinions and preferences regarding work flexibility and working hours (Bal et al., 2015). Some prefer to have flexible working hours in order to be able to have time for personal issues while others prefer full-time work for their own personal reasons.


ANDRE DE WAAL. (2013). Strategic Performance Management. Palgrave Macmillan

Allen, T. D., Johnson, R. C., Kiburz, K. M., & Shockley, K. M. (2013). Work–family conflict and flexible work arrangements: Deconstructing flexibility. Personnel Psychology, 66(2), 345-376.

ACHIM KRAUSET. (2009). Performance Management for Different Employee Groups: A Contribution to Empoyment Systems Theory. Springer Science & Business Media

Bernardin, H. J., & Wiatrowski, M. (2013). Performance appraisal. Psychology and Policing, 257.

Bal, P. M., Kleef, M., & Jansen, P. G. (2015). The impact of career customization on work outcomes: Boundary conditions of manager support and employee age. Journal of Organizational Behavior.

Calvo, A. J. (2013). Where’s the Remote? Face Time, Remote Work, and Implications for Performance Management.

CUMMINGS, T. G., & WORLEY, C. G. (2009). Organization development & change. Australia, South-Western/Cengage Learning.

Darcy, C., McCarthy, A., Hill, J., & Grady, G. (2012). Work–life balance: One size fits all? An exploratory analysis of the differential effects of career stage. European Management Journal, 30(2), 111-120.

Gallie, D., Felstead, A., & Green, F. (2012). Job preferences and the intrinsic quality of work: the changing attitudes of British employees 1992–2006. Work, Employment & Society, 26(5), 806-821.

Jaksic, M., & Jaksic, M. (2013). Performance Management And Employee Satisfaction. MONTENEGRIN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS Vol. 9, N0 1 2.

Kossekl, E. E., & Van Dyne, L. (2011). Face-Time Matters: A Cross-Level Model of How Work-Life Flexibility Influences Work Performance of Individuals and Groups. Handbook of work-family integration: Research, theory, and best practices, 305.

Kulik, C. T., Ryan, S., Harper, S., & George, G. (2014). Aging populations and management. Academy of Management Journal, 57(4), 929-935.

Lambert, S., & Henly, J. (2012). Frontline managers matter: Labour flexibility practices and sustained employment in US retail jobs. Are Bad Jobs Inevitable, 143-159.

Lambert, S. J., Haley-Lock, A., & Henly, J. R. (2012). Schedule flexibility in hourly jobs: Unanticipated consequences and promising directions. Community, Work & Family, 15(3), 293-315.

Mello, J. (2014). Strategic human resource management. Cengage Learning.

STOREY, J., & SALAMAN, G. (2009). Managerial dilemmas exploiting paradox for strategic leadership. Chichester, West Sussex, England, John Wiley & Sons.

Pradeepa, M., Vidya, R., & Naik, R. H. (2012). Effectiveness of SMART goal setting in performance management system among IT employees of Bangalore. International Journal of Managment, IT and Engineering, 2(11), 11-22.

Vandello, J. A., Hettinger, V. E., Bosson, J. K., & Siddiqi, J. (2013). When equal isn’t really equal: The masculine dilemma of seeking work flexibility. Journal of Social Issues, 69(2), 303-321.

Wheatley, D. (2012). Work-life balance, travel-to-work, and the dual career household. Personnel Review, 41(6), 813-831.


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